Friday, September 6, 2019

Habilidades y talento en el documento OCDE Going Digital: Shaping Policies, Improving Lives

El documento Going Digital: Shaping Policies, Improving Lives de la OCDE trata transversalmente un tema esencial: HABILIDADES. A continuación trato de reordenar toda la información relacionada con habilidades y talento plasmadas en el documento:


·         Closing the gap requires developing needed skills: only 31% of adults have sufficient problem-solving skills to succeed in a world of ubiquitous technologies.

·         Many jobs are likely to change: Digital transformation leads to creative destruction, with jobs being lost and others being created. Estimates of possible automation of tasks suggest that 14% of jobs face a high likelihood of automation and another 32% are likely to face significant change over the next 10 to 20 years.

·         74% people use e-mail, more sophisticated activities, like online courses (9%), still have great potential to grow

·        Some skills are particularly rewarded in digital work environments: workers in digital-intensive industries with high science, technology, engineering and mathematics skills and high levels of self-organisation or management and communication skills tend to earn a wage premium relative to those in non-digital intensive industries (Grundke et al., 2018[17]). On the other hand, low-skilled workers seem to experience downward pressure on their wages as a result of digital transformation (Acemoglu and Restrepo, 2017[7]; Dauth et al., 2017[19]; Graetz and Michaels, 2017[20]; Nedelkoska and Quintini, 2018

·        If one considers a mix of skills that includes literacy and numeracy, the number of adults lacking basic cognitive skills to be productive in digital environments is close to one in five adults in several countries.

·        The labour market demand for cognitive skills such as written and oral expression, numeracy, reasoning and complex problem solving has increased in the last decade, while demand for routine and physical abilities has dropped significantly.

·        The available evidence shows that the diffusion of online activities is more widespread among individuals with higher education levels than among less educated individuals (see Figure 3.1). Individuals with sound cognitive skills, notably numeracy, literacy, and problem-solving skills in technology-rich environments, are found to be most likely to perform a more diversified range of activities, including more complex/ sophisticated online activities.


·         Effective use of digital technologies often involves experimentation, as it takes time to reorganise production processes, introduce new business models, and find or provide workers and management with new skills. Digital transformation also requires complementary investments in skills, organizational change, process innovation, as well as new systems and business models.

·         Occupations requiring formal training and related curricula need to evolve with a long-term vision, and the conditions and quality of teaching need to improve. In addition, policies should help individuals navigate uncertain and evolving work environments by promoting comprehensive information about skills and learning opportunities; making learning opportunities flexible and affordable for both individuals and employers; and establishing mechanisms to ensure the quality and credibility of learning. It also important that policies foster engagement in learning for all, notably those most at risk of having their skills become obsolete. Overall, people’s readiness to learn, which is strongly correlated with cognitive skills, is a crucial determinant of participation in training programmes but also of learning from experience and expanding opportunities of digital learning

·        Everyone should have the chance to acquire needed skills and effectively use and continuously improve them. Starting from early childhood education, the accessibility, quality and equity of education for young people and of training for adults along their working life need to improve, including through better use of digital technologies for digital learning

·         To increase effective use, policies should:
o    Empower everyone with a mix of skills to thrive and trust in a digital world;
o    Boost adoption and diffusion of digital tools to drive productivity growth in firms, and small and medium-sized enterprises in particular;
o    Promote business dynamism and structural change;
o    Foster investment in intangible assets (e.g. patents, software); and
o    make digital government services more user centered.

·         Tareas importantes a desarrollar en los países:

·         The OECD Skills Strategy identifies three imperatives – life-long learning, fostering equitable opportunities and outcomes, and making better use of digital technology as a learning device. It advocates for three core areas of policy action: 1) Developing relevant skills across the life course; 2) Using skills effectively in all facets of work and society; and 3) Strengthening the governance of the skills system

·         In addition, co-ordination among education and training institutions, employers, and social partners and institutions is crucial to make education and training programmes more responsive to changing needs and help target those who need learning opportunities the most. This should include high-quality and independent orientation and counselling on life-long learning for all workers and the unemployed over their whole career span.

o    life-long learning
o    on-the-job training
o    up-skilling
o    re-skilling
o    training of low-skilled workers: the marginal benefit of training for technology adoption is twice as large for low-skilled than for high-skilled workers

·         Improve the accessibility, quality and equity of education for young people and of training systems for adults throughout their working life, including through better use of digital technologies for learning


·         Leverage skills for people, firms and governments to thrive in the digital age
·         Ensure everyone has the skills needed for a digital world; currently, only 31% of adults have sufficient problem-solving skills for technology-rich environments.
·         Hard AND soft skills!

Important skills include:
·       Generic ICT
·        ICT specialist
·        Data specialist skills: data analytics are essential to extract insights from data and to create value. Data analytics include a set of techniques, tools – software, AI, visualisation tools, etc. – that help extract information from data by revealing the context in which the data are embedded and their organization and structure. Effectively analyzing data with such tools crucially requires human capacity, notably skills, such as data analytic and management skills. Data analytics help extract information from data, which can be used to generate knowledge and/or support decision making.

·         Complementary skills and competences that enable high-performance work practices:
o    Teamwork, autonomy, problem solving, creative thinking, communication, collaboration, and emotional intelligence and a strong ability to continue learning.


·         On the jobs front, we know that digital transformation leads to some job losses and some job gains. The growing scale and complexity of these complementary investments make digital transformation particularly difficult for non-frontier firms, such as small and medium-sized enterprises in less digital-intensive sectors. To date, however, employment rates are at record high levels in many countries and over the past decade four out of ten new jobs were created in digital intensive sectors. But it is important to ensure that all workers benefit more equally from digital transformation and are empowered with the right mix of skills as well as provided with social protection. Over the past two decades, real median wage growth in most OECD countries has decoupled from labour productivity growth, suggesting that productivity gains no longer automatically translate into wage gains for all workers.

·         Ensure that people develop the skills they need to succeed in the digital world of work, notably sound cognitive skills, information and communication technology (ICT) skills, complementary skills, specialist skills and the ability to cope with change and keep learning, including out of work.

·         In addition, firms are not only demanding more in terms of workers’ skills requirements but also increasingly testing skills on their own rather than relying on diplomas. Similarly, skills acquired by workers through non-formal and informal learning are not often certified and not easily recognised by other employers, which is likely to weaken learning incentives and the ability of workers to fully benefit from such learning (OECD, forthcoming[13]; Quintini, forthcoming).

·         Boost the adoption, diffusion and effective use of advanced digital tools which drive productivity in firms; today, big data analysis is performed by 33% of large firms, but only by 19% of medium-sized and by 11% of small firms.

·         Promote investment in information and communication technologies (ICTs) and intangible assets, foster business dynamism and structural change, and support small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to overcome challenges in adopting advanced digital tools.

·         To boost productivity, it is essential to promote the adoption, diffusion and effective use of advanced digital tools, especially in SMEs, including by promoting investment in ICTs and intangible assets, notably skills, and by fostering business dynamism.

·         At the same time, policies need to strengthen trust in digital environments, for example by raising awareness and empowering people and organizations to better manage digital risk.

·         Besides having enough of the right skills, allocating skilled workers to the jobs they are best equipped for is important to foster usage.

·         Trust underpins most digital relationships and transactions and a lack of trust is an important barrier to diffusion and effective use

·         ICT skills used at work include, for example, basic computer skills, communication and information search skills, and proficiency in using office productivity software

·         High performance work practices include skills and competences such as teamwork, autonomy, task discretion, mentoring, job rotation, and applying new learning, as well as management practices including bonus payments, training, and flexible working hours.


·         Review education and training systems to empower people to prosper and workers to succeed, and better exploit the possibilities of digital learning.

·         Important potential for making education and training more effective lies in better using of digital technologies for teaching and learning. Over the past decade, different approaches to digital learning have evolved and often improved access to and flexibility of learning, including by allowing access to education and training over the Internet, and/or by unbundling and personalising it. Examples include: ●● digital learning materials and open educational (online) resources, which create new possibilities such as digital annotations, machine-scorable online quizzes, links to tutorials, etc. and can greatly reduce cost per learner ●● blended or hybrid learning, which may take the form of digital face-to-face learning or flipped classrooms courses ●● personalised instructions and adaptive learning, including through games and enhanced through data collection, predictive analytics and AI ●● digital immersive learning that can facilitate faculty-student and student-student interactions and substitute for “hands-on” educational experiences.

·         Digital transformation creates significant opportunities, from enhancing access to knowledge to driving new skills development. However, the benefits of access to and use of digital technologies appear to depend on whether digital tools are used as substitutes or complements to traditional education (Bulman and Fairlie, 2016[65]; Escueta et al., 2017[66]). At school, computer-assisted instruction seems to have more positive effects on students’ educational outcomes than ICT investment when the use of computers is supplemented with additional instruction and with investment in teacher skills to deploy digital tools effectively.

·         As the provision and forms of education, training and learning expand and diversify, a key question to be addressed is how to design and organize the certification of learning, including digital learning, to provide clarity to firms and individuals and to facilitate the recognition of skills acquired formally and informally. Many labour markets are characterised by a pool of workers with similar educational attainment but very different skills

·         It is therefore crucial to develop better accreditation mechanisms that complement the traditional diploma, including certifications that are independent from the completion of years of education, and to move towards a reliable assessment of skills rather than only a certification of participation in learning activities (OECD, forthcoming[13]).

·         To develop a holistic approach to improving education and training systems, governments need to invest strategically. To help governments do so, the 2019 OECD Skills Strategy, currently being reassessed, provides an integrated, cross-government strategic framework to help countries identify the strengths and weaknesses of their national skills systems, benchmark them internationally, and develop policies that can transform better skills into better jobs, economic growth and social inclusion.

·         To promote social prosperity, policies should reduce divides by strengthening foundational skills and life-long learning and include everyone – notably women, the elderly and low-income individuals – while tackling risks like cyberbullying and disinformation. Digital technologies can also help to address collective challenges, for example by promoting energy efficiency and reducing healthcare costs, e.g. through mobile health technologies.

·         To ensure that digital transformation supports and growth and well-being, it is important to and reduce any inequalities that may be exacerbated by technological progress. While each country has its own social preferences and specific context, there are some policy actions that can be taken that are relevant for all countries, particularly investing in education and skills, among others.

·         Address digital divides to increase inclusiveness

o    Divides by gender, age, educational attainment and income level reduce digital inclusion. Thirty-two percent of 55-65 year-olds have no computer experience or have failed core information and communication technology (ICT) tests, compared with 5% of 16-24 year-olds. More than twice as many young (16-24 year-old) men than women in the OECD can program.
o    Promote foundational skills (e.g. literacy, numeracy) for all, including by offering incentives for and easing access to adult learning and improving the recognition of skills acquired after initial education so that everyone can participate in a digital society. Social policies that support mobility and redistribution can also reduce digital divides
o    The gender gap is starker when considering programming skills. Across the European Union, more than twice as many young men (aged 16-24) than women have learnt to program (Figure 6.1). Only those with programming skills will be able to shape the development of digital technologies (e.g artificial intelligence), which could create biases.
o    Women are also less likely to study science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) or to pursue careers in the ICT sector
o    Older people (aged 55-74) were less likely than those aged 16 to 24 to use the Internet in every OECD country for which data were available in 2016 (OECD, 2019[1])

·         Divides in the distribution of skills may be somewhat compensated for by holistic education and skills policies that support learning and skills development throughout the life cycle. Governments and firms can promote adult learning by offering incentives (e.g. through the tax system), easing access to formal education for adults, and improving the recognition of skills acquired after initial education (OECD, 2017[12])


·         Policy action can improve the future readiness of adult learning systems by:

o    Making adult learning systems more inclusive, for example through providing better information and guidance, flexible learning provision, and the recognition of prior education and training
o    More closely aligning adult learning with skill needs, for example by ensuring high-quality information on skill needs to help shape learning systems
o    Improving the quality of training, for example by setting and monitoring quality standards, ensuring that training leads to certification, and regularly evaluating adult learning programmes
o    Ensuring adequate financing of adult learning, including by calling upon employers and individuals, in addition to governments, to contribute to training costs in line with the benefits they obtain.
o    Improving governance to enable effective vertical and horizontal co-ordination on adult learning within the government, as well as co-operation with social partners and other stakeholders (OECD, 2019[25]).
o    Raising aspirations for learning, strengthening systems of skills validation and certification, and encouraging the development of education and training markets that are responsive to the needs of adults.


Algunas iniciativas que está haciendo Colombia en el tema de habilidades: 

·         MINTIC
o    Convenio MINTIC – Coursera[1] (septiembre 3 de 2019): el Presidente dice que se trata de “ir democratizando esta plataforma para lograr también nuestra meta de tener cerca de 150 mil estudiantes formados en programación y en habilidades de la cuarta revolución industrial, de aquí al finalizar nuestro Gobierno, en agosto del 2022”. 
§  También señaló que se ha iniciado “un piloto que ya tiene cerca de 2.700 estudiantes, y la idea es ver cómo se van comportando los estudiantes, en la medida en que vayan también conociendo las herramientas de esta plataforma que, a su vez, está asociada con las mejores universidades del mundo, incluidas universidades de Colombia”.
o    Soluciones de acceso público gratuito a Internet
o    Primer Centro para la Cuarta Revolución Industrial en Latam del WEF
o (más de 33 mil beneficiados en cursos virtuales y más de 419 personas en talleres presenciales de emprendimiento digital)
o    Ecosistema C Emprende (emprendimiento digital)
o    Proyecto “Programación para niños y niñas”
o    Crea Digital
o con más de 36 cursos virtuales
o    Centros de Transformación Digital Empresarial en más de 20 departamentos del país
o    Créditos condonables con el Icetex para la formación en temas TI
o    Computadores para Educar: formación a docentes y entrega de dispositivos.
o    En TIC Confió: Alfabetización digital
o    Colombia 4.0 cumbre de contenidos digitales en Colombia (más de 10.000 inscritos en 2 días)
o    Alianza con Computadores para Educar: en julio 2019 lanzaron un piloto para llevar su modelo a 18 colegios oficiales de Popayán. 
§  Esta organización ofrece cursos de programación gratuitos a más de 36 millones de estudiantes en todo el mundo y es el principal referente en la promoción de la educación computacional en el mundo. En Colombia, cerca de 220.000 jóvenes aprenden código desde sus casas con ellos
·         SENA
·         Innpulsa: Desarrollo del emprendimiento de alto impacto en el país.
·         MINEDUCACION: un gran trabajo

·         CPE


·         Plataformas como Platzi y World Tech Makers
·         Universidades, colegios
·         Centros de Robótica
·         Otros (digan cuáles :) ) 

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